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By Shields M. C.

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The most important properties of plasmas are: • • • • • • • • • • • • increased content of charge carriers (electrons and ions); high content of high energetic neutrals (atoms, radicals, complexes); electrically conducting; glowing; form a magnetic field; “quasi-neutrality” in macroscopic dimensions (electrons = ions); microscopic dimension space charging; stationary plasma state possesses high energy with respect to enthalpy (energy is continuously supplied by electrical current, high dose rates); stationarity between formation and quenching of charge carriers (ion avalanche ↔ recombination); velocity and energy distributions; emission of high-energetic vacuum-UV irradiation (2–200 nm); the differences between isothermal (“hot,” high-pressure) and non-isothermal (glow) plasmas (at low pressures).

The electron temperature and density are dependent on the plasma parameters. Among these parameters, the pressure plays an important role. The collision rate becomes smaller with falling pressure (p) and increasing mean-free path (λmfp): λ mfp = kT/2−1/2 π −1 d −2 p −1 The collision rate (υ) depends on the type of gas and also on the cross-section (σ). Using τ as the time between two collisions gives υ = 1/τ = u¯/λ. After introduction of the collision cross-section σ = πd2 the collision rate is υ = σnu ¯ = πd2nu¯, where 3 n is the number of molecules per cm .

1 Gases or vapors used to produce plasma-gas-specific functional groups. 5 OH COOH O O reduction polyolefin polysort functionalization after O2 plasma exposure OH OH OH OH polyolefin monosort functionalization after chemical reduction with LiAlH4 or B2H6 Specific and unspecific functionalization. 6 Brominated polyolefin. 7 Plasma-polymer coated polymer substrate with monofunctional groups (specific functionalization). The special case of monosort functional groups was achieved with bromoform and bromine plasmas [57–60].

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A Determination of the Ratio of the Specific Heats of Hydrogen at 18 and -190C by Shields M. C.

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